- Elves (Quendi)
- Elves are the Firstborn of Ilúvatar. They are fair of face and noble in aspect. They are perhaps the wisest of the races of Middle-earth. They live as long as the world shall last unless they die of grief or are slain, when they are taken to the halls of Mandos. There are three sub-species of Elves living in Beleriand: the Noldor, the Sindar, and the Laiquendi.
- Dwarves (Naugrim)
- The Dwarves were created by Aulë the Smith before the coming of the Elves, because he desired learners to whom he could teach his lore and his crafts. They are strong of limb, and very resilient. They also live long lives but eventually do die.
- Men (Edain)
- Men are the Secondborn of Ilúvatar. They live brief lives and die of old age, and their gifts are lesser than the Firstborn, however (or therefore) they are the only truly "free" race. They are driven to do great deeds within their brief span.
- Orcs (Yrch)
- Bred in the depths of time by Morgoth, twisted and corrupted from tortured Elves, Orcs are almost everything the Elves are not, foul and unlovely, cruel haters of all life.
- Werewolves (Gaurhoth)
- Werewolves are dread spirits in the form of great wolves, not the shape-changers of popular fancy. Favored servants of Sauron.
- Great Spiders (Ungolath)
- The Great Spiders are dread monsters, the foul spawn of Ungoliant, which haunt the Nan Dungortheb.
- Great Eagles (Thoronath)
- The Great Eagles of Manwë, greatest and noblest of birds, aiders of Elves and Men against Morgoth.
- Ents (Onodhrim)
- The Ents were created by Ilúvatar at the behest of Yavanna, who feared that the Children of Ilúvatar and Aulë would destroy the forests she had created, in order to protect them. They are treeish Giants in aspect and typically move very slowly.
- Balrogs are fallen Maiar who serve Morgoth, dread demons of fire and darkness. After Sauron they are the mightiest and most terrible of Morgoth's servants. Their lord is Gothmog.
- Dragons (Urulóki)
- The fire-breathing Dragons are, after the Maiar who serve him, Morgoth's mightiest servants. They are great reptilian beasts covered in protective, armor-like scales.
- These are the lesser of the Ainur, the Powers of Arda.
- These are the Great Ainur, the most powerful of all Ilúvatar's creation.